This is the story of ecological revitalization in the upland areas of the Anaconda Smelter Superfund site (the Site), where years of cleanup continue to transform contaminated lands into functional properties and support a sustainable environment. Located in southwest Montana, in and near the towns of Anaconda and Opportunity, the Site is part of the larger Upper Clark Fork Basin Superfund area. Contamination from nearly 100 years of copper smelter operations have affected the health and quality of the environment at the Site. Estimates indicate that more than a billion gallons of groundwater were contaminated and thousands of acres of soil were affected by fluvially transported mine wastes and smelter emissions. The massive 300-square-mile site area and variable, rugged terrain provided major remedial design challenges. This case study focuses on the upland areas of the Site, which include surface soil primarily contaminated by smelter emissions. Innovative assessment techniques, developed through years of studies and investigations, helped tailor remediation. Though originally designed for the Anaconda Smelter Superfund site, these evaluation and remedial processes may also be applicable at other contaminated sites across the country. Smelter operations had immediate and long-term effects on the environment. Very little vegetation was able to survive on nearby properties or areas directly downwind. Smelting facilities released tons of arsenic, copper, sulfur, lead and zinc each day. A United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin stated, “In 1910 and 1911, all of the major tree species were either dead or dying as far as 5 to 8 miles from the smelter.” Local ecosystems worsened over the years. By the 1980s, forestry impacts were documented as far as 22 miles away. In addition to forests, impacted properties primarily include open grasslands and individually-owned ranches. These lands need to sustain area livelihood and local wildlife. The innovative site evaluation and assessment techniques, paired with effective remedial processes such as tilling and adding soil amendments, have helped restore these vital grasslands and ranch areas. The uplands remediation and ecological revitalization efforts have served to provide key lessons and replicable assessment techniques for other sites with area-wide contamination.